Occupational therapy for children with dyspraxia/DCD

Current thinking about occupational therapy for children with dyspraxia/DCD and their families favour a “top down” approach to assessment and intervention. These approaches focus on how children manage everyday activities at home, school and play, and work on the assumption that children develop skills as a consequence of the interaction between the child, the task and their environment (Mandich et al 2001). More traditional process-orientated approaches focus on the identification and remediation of underlying impairments, with the expectation that these will lead to improvements in occupational performance (Coster 1998). For a review of the evidence of the effectiveness of various intervention approaches see Mandich et al (2001).

Current issues for occupational therapists include:

  • The effectiveness of intervention approaches on functional performance
  • Cognitive approaches to intervention
  • Waiting list management
  • Child and family-centred care

Assessment tools often used by occupational therapists

Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) Developed by Missiuna C, Pollock N, and Law M (2004) Available from The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Assessment


Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) and School Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (School AMPS) For information see www.AMPS-UK.com


Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) – for children up to 7.5 years of age. Developed by Hayley et al (1992) available from The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Assessments


Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Developed by Henderson S and Sugden D (1992) available from The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Assessment


Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) developed by Beery K, Buktenica N, Beery N (5th Edition 2004) Available from Ann Arbour Publishers and nferNELSON


Bruininks-Osteretsky Test of Motor Proficiency developed by Bruininks R, (1978) published by American Guidance Service


Test of Visual Perceptual Skills – non-motor (TVPS) developed by Gardner M (1996) available from Ann Arbour Publishers


Motor-Free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPS) developed by Mercier L, Hebert R, Collarusso R, Hammil D (2002) available from Ann Arbour Publishers


Sensory Profile developed by Dunn W (1999) available from Harcourt Assessment (see also www.sensoryprofile.com)

References:

Coster W (1998) Occupation-centred assessment of children American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol. 52, no 5 pages 337-45


Davidson T, Williams B (2000) Occupational Therapy for children with DCD: a study of the effectiveness of a combined sensory integration and perceptual-motor intervention British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol. 63 no.10 pages495-499


Dunford C, Missiuna C, Street E, Sibert J (2005) Children’s perceptions of the impact of DCD on activities of daily living British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 68 No. 5 pages 207-214


Green D, Bishop T, Wilson B, Crawfrod S, Hooper R, Kaplan B, Baird G (2005) Is questionnaire-based screening part of the solution to waiting lists for children with DCD? British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol. 68 no.1 Pages2-10


Hsiu-Fen Chen, Cohn E (2003) Social participation for children with DCD: conceptual, evaluation and intervention considerations Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics Vol. 23, no.4 pages 61-78


McWilliams S (2005) DCD and self-esteem: do occupational therapy groups have a positive effect? British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol. 68 no. 9 pages 393-400


Mandich A, Polatajko H, Macnab J, Miller L (2001) Treatment of children with developmental coordination disorder: what is the evidence? Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics Vol. 20 no 2/3, pages 51-68.


Ward A, Rodger S (200$) The application of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) with children aged 5-7 years with DCD British Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 67 no.6 pages 256-264


Wilson B, Kaplan B, Crawford S, Campbell A, Dewey D (2000) Reliability and validity of a parent questionnaire on childhood motor skills American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol. 54 no.5 pages 484-493

Useful links:

www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/canchild/
Includes handouts on cognitive approaches to intervention, fine motor difficulties, children with DCD at home and in the classroom, and handouts for leaders of sports clubs and community groups.